Skip to main content
Version: 22.12.0

Troubleshooting

note

To keep this page up-to-date we largely rely on community contributions. Please send a PR if you notice something is no longer up-to-date.

Cannot find module 'puppeteer-core/internal/...'

This can occur if your Node.js version is lower than 14 or if you are using a custom resolver (such as jest-resolve). For the former, we do not support deprecated versions of Node.js. For the latter, usually upgrading the resolver (or its parent module such as jest) will work (e.g. https://github.com/puppeteer/puppeteer/issues/9121)

Could not find expected browser locally

Starting from v19.0.0, Puppeteer will download browsers into ~/.cache/puppeteer using os.homedir for better caching between Puppeteer upgrades. Generally the home directory is well-defined (even on Windows), but occasionally the home directory may not be available. In this case, we provide the PUPPETEER_CACHE_DIR variable which allows you to change the installation directory.

For example,

PUPPETEER_CACHE_DIR=$(pwd) npm install puppeteer
PUPPETEER_CACHE_DIR=$(pwd) node <script-path>

You can also create a configuration file named .puppeteerrc.cjs (or puppeteer.config.cjs) at the root of your application with the contents

const {join} = require('path');

/**
* @type {import("puppeteer").Configuration}
*/
module.exports = {
cacheDirectory: join(__dirname, '.cache', 'puppeteer'),
};

You will need to reinstall puppeteer in order for the configuration to take effect. See Configuring Puppeteer for more information.

Chrome doesn't launch on Windows

Some chrome policies might enforce running Chrome/Chromium with certain extensions.

Puppeteer passes --disable-extensions flag by default and will fail to launch when such policies are active.

To work around this, try running without the flag:

const browser = await puppeteer.launch({
ignoreDefaultArgs: ['--disable-extensions'],
});

Context: issue 3681.

Chrome reports sandbox errors on Windows

Chrome uses sandboxes on Windows which require additional permissions on the downloaded Chrome files. Currently, Puppeteer is not able to set those permissions for you.

If you encounter this issue, you will see errors like this in the browser stdout:

[24452:59820:0508/113713.058:ERROR:sandbox_win.cc(913)] Sandbox cannot access executable. Check filesystem permissions are valid. See https://bit.ly/31yqMJR.: Access is denied. (0x5)

To workaround the issue, use the icacls utility to set permissions manually:

icacls %USERPROFILE%/.cache/puppeteer/chrome /grant *S-1-15-2-1:(OI)(CI)(RX)
note

In high security environments a more restrictive SID should be used such as one from the installer.

See https://bit.ly/31yqMJR for more details.

Chrome doesn't launch on Linux

Make sure all the necessary dependencies are installed. You can run ldd chrome | grep not on a Linux machine to check which dependencies are missing. The common ones are provided below. Also, see https://source.chromium.org/chromium/chromium/src/+/main:chrome/installer/linux/debian/dist_package_versions.json for the up-to-date list of dependencies declared by the Chrome installer.

caution

Chrome currently does not provide arm64 binaries for Linux. There are only arm64 binaries for Mac ARM. That means that Linux binaries downloaded by default will not work on Linux arm64.

Debian (e.g. Ubuntu) Dependencies
ca-certificates
fonts-liberation
libasound2
libatk-bridge2.0-0
libatk1.0-0
libc6
libcairo2
libcups2
libdbus-1-3
libexpat1
libfontconfig1
libgbm1
libgcc1
libglib2.0-0
libgtk-3-0
libnspr4
libnss3
libpango-1.0-0
libpangocairo-1.0-0
libstdc++6
libx11-6
libx11-xcb1
libxcb1
libxcomposite1
libxcursor1
libxdamage1
libxext6
libxfixes3
libxi6
libxrandr2
libxrender1
libxss1
libxtst6
lsb-release
wget
xdg-utils
CentOS Dependencies
alsa-lib.x86_64
atk.x86_64
cups-libs.x86_64
gtk3.x86_64
ipa-gothic-fonts
libXcomposite.x86_64
libXcursor.x86_64
libXdamage.x86_64
libXext.x86_64
libXi.x86_64
libXrandr.x86_64
libXScrnSaver.x86_64
libXtst.x86_64
pango.x86_64
xorg-x11-fonts-100dpi
xorg-x11-fonts-75dpi
xorg-x11-fonts-cyrillic
xorg-x11-fonts-misc
xorg-x11-fonts-Type1
xorg-x11-utils

After installing dependencies you need to update nss library using this command

yum update nss -y
Check out discussions
  • #290 - Debian troubleshooting
  • #391 - CentOS troubleshooting
  • #379 - Alpine troubleshooting

chrome-headless-shell disables GPU compositing

chrome-headless-shell requires --enable-gpu to enable GPU acceleration in headless mode.

const browser = await puppeteer.launch({
headless: 'shell',
args: ['--enable-gpu'],
});

Setting up GPU with Chrome

Generally, Chrome should be able to detect and enable GPU if the system has appropriate drivers. For additional tips, see the following blog post https://developer.chrome.com/blog/supercharge-web-ai-testing.

Setting Up Chrome Linux Sandbox

In order to protect the host environment from untrusted web content, Chrome uses multiple layers of sandboxing. For this to work properly, the host should be configured first. If there's no good sandbox for Chrome to use, it will crash with the error No usable sandbox!.

If you absolutely trust the content you open in Chrome, you can launch Chrome with the --no-sandbox argument:

const browser = await puppeteer.launch({
args: ['--no-sandbox', '--disable-setuid-sandbox'],
});
caution

Running without a sandbox is strongly discouraged. Consider configuring a sandbox instead.

There are 2 ways to configure a sandbox in Chromium.

User namespace cloning is only supported by modern kernels. Unprivileged user namespaces are generally fine to enable, but in some cases they open up more kernel attack surface for (unsandboxed) non-root processes to elevate to kernel privileges.

sudo sysctl -w kernel.unprivileged_userns_clone=1

[alternative] Setup setuid sandbox

The setuid sandbox comes as a standalone executable and is located next to the Chrome that Puppeteer downloads. It is fine to re-use the same sandbox executable for different Chrome versions, so the following could be done only once per host environment:

# cd to Puppeteer cache directory (adjust the path if using a different cache directory).
cd ~/.cache/puppeteer/chrome/linux-<version>/chrome-linux64/
sudo chown root:root chrome_sandbox
sudo chmod 4755 chrome_sandbox
# copy sandbox executable to a shared location
sudo cp -p chrome_sandbox /usr/local/sbin/chrome-devel-sandbox
# export CHROME_DEVEL_SANDBOX env variable
export CHROME_DEVEL_SANDBOX=/usr/local/sbin/chrome-devel-sandbox

You might want to export the CHROME_DEVEL_SANDBOX env variable by default. In this case, add the following to the ~/.bashrc or .zshenv:

export CHROME_DEVEL_SANDBOX=/usr/local/sbin/chrome-devel-sandbox

or to your Dockerfile:

ENV CHROME_DEVEL_SANDBOX /usr/local/sbin/chrome-devel-sandbox

Running Puppeteer on Travis CI

👋 We ran our tests for Puppeteer on Travis CI until v6.0.0 (when we've migrated to GitHub Actions) - see our historical .travis.yml (v5.5.0) for reference.

Tips-n-tricks:

  • xvfb service should be launched in order to run Chromium in non-headless mode
  • Runs on Xenial Linux on Travis by default
  • Runs npm install by default
  • node_modules is cached by default

.travis.yml might look like this:

language: node_js
node_js: node
services: xvfb
script:
- npm test

Running Puppeteer on WSL (Windows subsystem for Linux)

See this thread with some tips specific to WSL. In a nutshell, you need to install missing dependencies by either:

  1. Installing Chrome on WSL to install all dependencies
  2. Installing required dependencies manually: sudo apt install libgtk-3-dev libnotify-dev libgconf-2-4 libnss3 libxss1 libasound2.
caution

The list of required dependencies might get outdated and depend on what you already have installed.

Running Puppeteer on CircleCI

Running Puppeteer smoothly on CircleCI requires the following steps:

  1. Start with a NodeJS image in your config like so:
    docker:
    - image: circleci/node:14 # Use your desired version
    environment:
    NODE_ENV: development # Only needed if puppeteer is in `devDependencies`
  2. Dependencies like libXtst6 probably need to be installed via apt-get, so use the threetreeslight/puppeteer orb (instructions), or paste parts of its source into your own config.
  3. Lastly, if you’re using Puppeteer through Jest, then you may encounter an error spawning child processes:
    [00:00.0]  jest args: --e2e --spec --max-workers=36
    Error: spawn ENOMEM
    at ChildProcess.spawn (internal/child_process.js:394:11)
    This is likely caused by Jest autodetecting the number of processes on the entire machine (36) rather than the number allowed to your container (2). To fix this, set jest --maxWorkers=2 in your test command.

Running Puppeteer in Docker

👋 We used Cirrus Ci to run our tests for Puppeteer in a Docker container until v3.0.x - see our historical Dockerfile.linux (v3.0.1) for reference. Starting from v16.0.0 we are shipping a Docker image via the GitHub registry. The Dockerfile is located here and the usage instructions are in the README.md. The instructions below might be still helpful if you are building your own image.

Getting headless Chrome up and running in Docker can be tricky. The bundled Chromium that Puppeteer installs is missing the necessary shared library dependencies.

To fix, you'll need to install the missing dependencies and the latest Chromium package in your Dockerfile:

FROM node:14-slim

# Install latest chrome dev package and fonts to support major charsets (Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew, Thai and a few others)
# Note: this installs the necessary libs to make the bundled version of Chromium that Puppeteer
# installs, work.
RUN apt-get update \
&& apt-get install -y wget gnupg \
&& wget -q -O - https://dl-ssl.google.com/linux/linux_signing_key.pub | apt-key add - \
&& sh -c 'echo "deb [arch=amd64] http://dl.google.com/linux/chrome/deb/ stable main" >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/google.list' \
&& apt-get update \
&& apt-get install -y google-chrome-stable fonts-ipafont-gothic fonts-wqy-zenhei fonts-thai-tlwg fonts-kacst fonts-freefont-ttf libxss1 \
--no-install-recommends \
&& rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*

# If running Docker >= 1.13.0 use docker run's --init arg to reap zombie processes, otherwise
# uncomment the following lines to have `dumb-init` as PID 1
# ADD https://github.com/Yelp/dumb-init/releases/download/v1.2.2/dumb-init_1.2.2_x86_64 /usr/local/bin/dumb-init
# RUN chmod +x /usr/local/bin/dumb-init
# ENTRYPOINT ["dumb-init", "--"]

# Uncomment to skip the chromium download when installing puppeteer. If you do,
# you'll need to launch puppeteer with:
# browser.launch({executablePath: 'google-chrome-stable'})
# ENV PUPPETEER_SKIP_DOWNLOAD true

# Install puppeteer so it's available in the container.
RUN npm init -y && \
npm i puppeteer \
# Add user so we don't need --no-sandbox.
# same layer as npm install to keep re-chowned files from using up several hundred MBs more space
&& groupadd -r pptruser && useradd -r -g pptruser -G audio,video pptruser \
&& mkdir -p /home/pptruser/Downloads \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /home/pptruser \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /node_modules \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /package.json \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /package-lock.json

# Run everything after as non-privileged user.
USER pptruser

CMD ["google-chrome-stable"]

Build the container:

docker build -t puppeteer-chrome-linux .

Run the container by passing node -e "<yourscript.js content as a string>" as the command:

 docker run -i --init --rm --cap-add=SYS_ADMIN \
--name puppeteer-chrome puppeteer-chrome-linux \
node -e "`cat yourscript.js`"

There's a full example at https://github.com/ebidel/try-puppeteer that shows how to run this Dockerfile from a webserver running on App Engine Flex (Node).

Running on Alpine

The newest Chromium package supported on Alpine is 100, which corresponds to Puppeteer v13.5.0.

Example Dockerfile:

FROM alpine

# Installs latest Chromium (100) package.
RUN apk add --no-cache \
chromium \
nss \
freetype \
harfbuzz \
ca-certificates \
ttf-freefont \
nodejs \
yarn

...

# Tell Puppeteer to skip installing Chrome. We'll be using the installed package.
ENV PUPPETEER_EXECUTABLE_PATH=/usr/bin/chromium-browser

# Puppeteer v13.5.0 works with Chromium 100.
RUN yarn add puppeteer@13.5.0

# Add user so we don't need --no-sandbox.
RUN addgroup -S pptruser && adduser -S -G pptruser pptruser \
&& mkdir -p /home/pptruser/Downloads /app \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /home/pptruser \
&& chown -R pptruser:pptruser /app

# Run everything after as non-privileged user.
USER pptruser

...

Running Puppeteer on GitlabCI

This is very similar to some of the instructions above, but require a bit different configuration to finally achieve success.

Usually the issue looks like this:

Error: Failed to launch chrome! spawn /usr/bin/chromium-browser ENOENT

You need to patch two places:

  1. Your gitlab-ci.yml config
  2. Arguments' list when launching puppeteer

In gitlab-ci.yml we need to install some packages to make it possible to launch headless Chrome in your docker env:

before_script:
- apt-get update
- apt-get install -yq gconf-service libasound2 libatk1.0-0 libc6 libcairo2
libcups2 libdbus-1-3 libexpat1 libfontconfig1 libgbm1 libgcc1 libgconf-2-4
libgdk-pixbuf2.0-0 libglib2.0-0 libgtk-3-0 libnspr4 libpango-1.0-0
libpangocairo-1.0-0 libstdc++6 libx11-6 libx11-xcb1 libxcb1 libxcomposite1
libxcursor1 libxdamage1 libxext6 libxfixes3 libxi6 libxrandr2 libxrender1
libxss1 libxtst6 ca-certificates fonts-liberation libnss3 lsb-release
xdg-utils wget

Next, you have to use '--no-sandbox' mode and also '--disable-setuid-sandbox' when launching Puppeteer. This can be done by passing them as an arguments to your .launch() call: puppeteer.launch({ args: ['--no-sandbox', '--disable-setuid-sandbox'] });.

Running Puppeteer on Google Cloud Run

Google Cloud Run disables the CPU by default, after an HTTP response is written to the client. This means that puppeteer will appear extremely slow (taking 1-5 minutes to launch), if you "run puppeteer in the background" after your response has been written.

So this simple express app will be percievably slow:

import express from 'express';

const app = express();

app.post('/test-puppeteer', (req, res) => {
res.json({
jobId: 123,
acknowledged: true,
});

puppeteer.launch().then(browser => {
// 2 minutes later...
});
});

app.listen(3000);

It is slow because CPU is disabled on GCR because puppeteer is launched after the response is sent. What you want to do is this:

app.post('/test-puppeteer', (req, res) => {
puppeteer.launch().then(browser => {
// A second later...
res.json({
jobId: 123,
acknowledged: true,
});
});
});

If you want to run the stuff in the background, you need to "enable CPU always" even after responses are sent. That should fix it.

Tips

By default, Docker runs a container with a /dev/shm shared memory space 64MB. This is typically too small for Chrome and will cause Chrome to crash when rendering large pages. To fix, run the container with docker run --shm-size=1gb to increase the size of /dev/shm. Since Chrome 65, this is no longer necessary. Instead, launch the browser with the --disable-dev-shm-usage flag:

const browser = await puppeteer.launch({
args: ['--disable-dev-shm-usage'],
});

This will write shared memory files into /tmp instead of /dev/shm. See crbug.com/736452 for more details.

Seeing other weird errors when launching Chrome? Try running your container with docker run --cap-add=SYS_ADMIN when developing locally. Since the Dockerfile adds a pptr user as a non-privileged user, it may not have all the necessary privileges.

dumb-init is worth checking out if you're experiencing a lot of zombies Chrome processes sticking around. There's special treatment for processes with PID=1, which makes it hard to terminate Chrome properly in some cases (e.g. in Docker).

Running Puppeteer in the cloud

Running Puppeteer on Google App Engine

The Node.js runtime of the App Engine standard environment comes with all system packages needed to run Headless Chrome.

To use puppeteer, specify the module as a dependency in your package.json and then override the puppeteer cache directory by including a file named .puppeteerrc.cjs at the root of your application with the contents:

const {join} = require('path');

/**
* @type {import("puppeteer").Configuration}
*/
module.exports = {
cacheDirectory: join(__dirname, 'node_modules', '.puppeteer_cache'),
};

[!NOTE] Google App Engine caches your node_modules between builds. Specifying the Puppeteer cache as subdirectory of node_modules mitigates an issue in which Puppeteer can't find the browser executable due to postinstall not being run.

Running Puppeteer on Google Cloud Functions

The Node.js runtime of Google Cloud Functions comes with all system packages needed to run Headless Chrome.

To use puppeteer, specify the module as a dependency in your package.json and then override the puppeteer cache directory by including a file named .puppeteerrc.cjs at the root of your application with the contents:

const {join} = require('path');

/**
* @type {import("puppeteer").Configuration}
*/
module.exports = {
cacheDirectory: join(__dirname, 'node_modules', '.puppeteer_cache'),
};

[!NOTE] Google Cloud Functions caches your node_modules between builds. Specifying the puppeteer cache as subdirectory of node_modules mitigates an issue in which the puppeteer install process does not run when the cache is hit.

Running Puppeteer on Google Cloud Run

The default Node.js runtime of Google Cloud Run does not come with the system packages needed to run Headless Chrome. You will need to set up your own Dockerfile and include the missing dependencies.

Running Puppeteer on Heroku

Running Puppeteer on Heroku requires some additional dependencies that aren't included on the Linux box that Heroku spins up for you. To add the dependencies on deploy, add the Puppeteer Heroku buildpack to the list of buildpacks for your app under Settings > Buildpacks.

The url for the buildpack is https://github.com/jontewks/puppeteer-heroku-buildpack

Ensure that you're using '--no-sandbox' mode when launching Puppeteer. This can be done by passing it as an argument to your .launch() call: puppeteer.launch({ args: ['--no-sandbox'] });.

When you click add buildpack, simply paste that url into the input, and click save. On the next deploy, your app will also install the dependencies that Puppeteer needs to run.

If you need to render Chinese, Japanese, or Korean characters you may need to use a buildpack with additional font files like https://github.com/CoffeeAndCode/puppeteer-heroku-buildpack

There's also another simple guide from @timleland that includes a sample project: https://timleland.com/headless-chrome-on-heroku/.

Running Puppeteer on AWS Lambda

AWS Lambda limits deployment package sizes to ~50MB. This presents challenges for running headless Chrome (and therefore Puppeteer) on Lambda. The community has put together a few resources that work around the issues:

Running Puppeteer on AWS EC2 instance running Amazon-Linux

If you are using an EC2 instance running amazon-linux in your CI/CD pipeline, and if you want to run Puppeteer tests in amazon-linux, follow these steps.

  1. To install Chromium, you have to first enable amazon-linux-extras which comes as part of EPEL (Extra Packages for Enterprise Linux):

    sudo amazon-linux-extras install epel -y
  2. Next, install Chromium:

    sudo yum install -y chromium

Now Puppeteer can launch Chromium to run your tests. If you do not enable EPEL and if you continue installing chromium as part of npm install, Puppeteer cannot launch Chromium due to unavailability of libatk-1.0.so.0 and many more packages.

Code Transpilation Issues

If you are using a JavaScript transpiler like babel or TypeScript, calling evaluate() with an async function might not work. This is because while puppeteer uses Function.prototype.toString() to serialize functions while transpilers could be changing the output code in such a way it's incompatible with puppeteer.

Some workarounds to this problem would be to instruct the transpiler not to mess up with the code, for example, configure TypeScript to use latest ecma version ("target": "es2018"). Another workaround could be using string templates instead of functions:

await page.evaluate(`(async() => {
console.log('1');
})()`);